- If we accept David Thomson's veredicto that noir is something that "happened to American cinema in the 1940s," it is easy to understand why the style could not catch on in Spain at the time. Noir reflected a certain moral ambiguity during the 1940s that could not possibly find expression in a country where a dogmatic view of Catholicism and its certainties was imposed by the state. Even in an atmosphere of censorship, femmes fatales like Gilda or Double Indemnity's Phyllis were allowed to appear on American screens, but the Spanish regime was too watchful of feminine virtue and frowned on any suggestion of promiscuity and limited noir imports: when Gilda (Charles Vidor, 1947) reached Spain, there were political demonstrations in front of the cinemas where it was exhibited, with outraged pro-Franco citizens claiming it was an affront to Spanish decency.The one element of noir that found some kind of echo in Spanish cinema was the notion of the big city as a dark and dangerous background, as featured prominently, for instance in Out of the Past (Jacques Tournerur, 1947) or The Asphalt Jungle (John Huston, 1950). This idea is articulated in non-noir films like Surcos (Burrows, Jose Antonio Nieves Conde, 1951), which actually has an interesting cast of characters that seems to have been inspired by noir, as well as in thrillers like Brigada criminal (Criminal Brigade, Ignacio F. Iquino, 1950), Apartado de correos 1001 (P.O. Box 1001, Julio Salvador, 1950), and Distrito quinto (Fifth District, Julio Coll, 1958). In these instances, the idea of a corrupting city was very much in tune with ideologies of early Francoism that defended rural values, but for obvious reasons the police had to be honest and representative of essential national virtues.In the 1960s, some key Escuela de Barcelona films, like Fata morgana (Vicente Aranda, 1965) and Ditirambo (Gonzalo Suárez, 1969) recycled noir conventions as part of their intertextual project. The revival of noir in the 1970s coincided with the Transition, as there was a new generation of cinephile directors who wanted to emulate their classic masters. One of the earliest manifestations of hard-boiled noir in Spanish cinema was José Luis Borau's Hay que matar a B. (B. Must Be Killed, 1975), which was followed by José Luis Garci's El crack (The Best, 1981) and its sequel, El crack 2 (1983). After that, noir (or neo noir) has become a solid tradition in Spanish cinema, which became increasingly more inventive in the 1990s. One strand uses noir characters, moods, and conventions to engage with the post-Civil War period. The most important examples are Si te dicen que caí (If They Tell You I Fell, Vicente Aranda, 1989), Beltenebros (Prince of Shadows, Pilar Miró, 1991), and Madregilda (Mother-Gilda, Francisco Regueiro, 1993), the two latter films quote Gilda and its cultural impact on the 1940s. Updated instances of noir that translate the feeling of ethical ambiguity and gloomy aesthetics into more contemporary settings include Vicente Aranda's Asesinato en el comité central (Murder at the Central Committee, 1982) and Fanny Pelopaja (Fanny Straw Hair, 1984), Enrique Urbizu's Todo por la pasta (All for the Dough, 1991), Marcelo Piñeyro's excellent Plata quemada (Burnt Money, 2000), and Daniel Calparsoro's early films, including Pasajes (1996), A ciegas (Blindly, 1997), and Asfalto (Asphalt, 2000).
Historical dictionary of Spanish cinema. Alberto Mira. 2010.
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Film Noir — Cinéma … Wikipédia en Français
film noir — /fɪlm ˈnwa/ (say film nwah) noun 1. a black and white film genre, especially of the 1940s, concerned with the darker side of human nature, and typified by sombre, shadowy photography and an overall feeling of depression or pessimism. 2. any later … Australian English dictionary
film noir — 1958, from French, lit. black film, from noir (12c.), from L. niger (see NEGRO (Cf. Negro)) … Etymology dictionary
film noir — [film΄ nwär′] n. [Fr, lit., black film] a type of film, esp. of the 1940s and 1950s, fatalistic, pessimistic, or cynical in mood and often dealing melodramatically with urban crime and corruption … English World dictionary
film noir — [ˌfılm ˈnwa: US ˈnwa:r] n plural films noirs (same pronunciation) [U and C] a film that deals with subjects such as evil, moral problems etc, often using a story about people involved in a crime and filmed in a way that seems dark or filled with… … Dictionary of contemporary English
film noir — [ ,fılm nwar ] noun uncount movies that present the world as a sad place in which the characters are caught in complicated or dangerous situations … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
film noir — film′ noir′ n. 1) sbz a motion picture genre marked by grim urban settings, cynical, bleakly pessimistic characters, and starkly shadowed photography 2) sbz a motion picture in this genre • Etymology: 1955–60; < F: lit., black film … From formal English to slang
Film noir — Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). The film s cinematographer was John Alton, the creator of many of film noir s iconic images … Wikipedia
Film noir — Der Begriff Film noir [filmˈnwaʀ] (frz. für „schwarzer Film“) bezeichnet ein Filmgenre oder – je nach Sichtweise – eine Stilrichtung des Films. Seine klassische Ära hatte der Film noir in den Vereinigten Staaten der 1940er und 1950er Jahre.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
film noir — /nwahr/ a motion picture with an often grim urban setting, photographed in somber tones and permeated by a feeling of disillusionment, pessimism, and despair. [1955 60; < F: lit., black film] * * * (French; black film ) Film genre that offers… … Universalium
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